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Ancient (Thaumatology, gWestern Europe had had a long history before the Christians came The Roman empire from 300 BC enabled a prosperous trade and economy to become established across the Mediterranean It was an empire of cities Rome itself may have had a million inhabitants and city life temples baths and sophisticated living including literacy among the elite was widespread throughout the western Roman provinces Roman law which protected individual rights was a major achievement Individual farmers tenant farmers villa owners underpinned property rights The collapse of the Western empire in the fifth century was total and similar levels of prosperity may not have been reached in Europe before 1500 some say 1800 Post Roman Europe was ethnically diverse original Romanised populations incoming Germanic tribes settled among them including Anglo Saxon England communities such as the Irish who had never experienced Rome The extension of Christianity took centuries to take effect a thousand years between Christianisation in France and in LithuaniaThere is very little of this in Henrich s book which begins as late as 400 AD He starts however with an analysis of attitudes among differentlobal communities He concludes that individuals in Western Educated Industrialised Rich and Democratic ie WEIRD societies are morally and cognitively superior Isn t classifying a country by attributes of its people as Henrich does rather than by class and education and even personality simplistic Is there a typical Indian or a typical WEIRD Englishman I know of many who are not Swedes traditionally conformist Italians Irish Americans Australians which Australians only European ones are all apparently WEIRDS The uestion Henrich proposes to answer is how the WEIRDS have been made this wayThe author oes back a long way He claims that Catholic marriage laws which prohibited marriages between even distant cousins led over centuries from 400 AD onwards to a individualistic society This explains the economic and cultural dominance of the west As the author puts it p179 In the medieval world of scattered farms intimate villages and small towns these prohibitions would have FORCED people to reach out far and wide to find Christian strangers from other communities often in different tribal or ethnic roups Apparently the Church had complete control over marriages from after AD 400 everyone insisted in formal marriage ceremonies in church and prospective husbands and wives had to travel outside their own ethnic and tribal A Caregiver's Guide to Lewy Body Dementia groups to find mates elsewhere This demolished kinshiproups so throughly that EVERYONE somehow became WEIRD highly individualistic personalities in a way that they had not been beforeNone of this argument is supported by historical evidence The Romans prominent c 300 BC to 450 AD banned cousin marriages to the fourth degree of consanguinity and held land in individual plots not communally as Henrich believes so making a nonsense of his claim p315 that in 400 AD Europe was just like everywhere else in the world But there were sophisticated ancient civilizations with minds of their own in Mesopotamia Egypt India China Greece and Rome before AD 400 After the fall of Rome there are centuries without central authority the Church was not powerful enough to enforce its own laws until c1200 and the Carolingian empire was short lived There is an excellent section on sexual relationships in Julia Smith s Europe After Rome AD 500 1000 pp 125 135 where she discusses the many different types of sexual relationships under Roman Germanic and Irish law before AD1000 Marriage by consent among partners alone was possible and inevitably unrecorded Smith does mention p131 that some bishops tried sic to impose an additional disualification namely enforcing the consanguinity laws but it seems to have been a minority practice probably only among the mobile nobility and certainly not universally enforced as Henrich claims that it was Generally marriages took place WITHIN communities as they did until c1900 in rural areas In the fifteenth century in Tuscany a study of 700 dowries showed that rural men in Tuscany married rural brides and urban men eg Florentines urban brides and marriages outside their immediate community were rare The men tended to stay within their family households with older Besser Php Programmieren generations and the local brides moved in with them so little mobility The Florentines traced theirenealogies back Călătoria unui fiu risipitor. Eseu romanţat asupra neizbânzii generations so they could extend their kinship links to unrelated families forreater security SEE MY OLDEST COMMENT BELOWHenrich s argument does not work How could a farm labourer walk off on his day off to find another mate elsewhere My late father in law a GP was still sorting out the medical problems of village inbreeding in the 1950sHenrich vastly overestimates the impact of Church law The Church passed a number of laws restricting marriage between cousins he lists them pp168 171 but as seen most marriages took place according to local custom In her book The Rise of Magic in Early Modern Europe Valerie Flint explained how many pagan practices continued for centuries Marriages remained outside the reach of the Church certainly until the thirteenth century and even the Fourth Lateran Council 1215 did not make the presence of a priest compulsory for a valid marriage Yet Henrich already has communities broken up by1200 before canon law Gratian s Decretum had even been formalised On the final page 595 of his magisterial volume on the Church and medieval sex James Brundage explains how even despite dire warnings and the exasperation of the Church the laity persisted with their sex lives in medieval Europe The authoritative Cambridge History of Christianity Volume Three Early Medieval Christianities c 600 c1100 in a survey chapter by leading medievalist John Van Engen p637 notes that as late as 1100 In daily practice women s lives hinged as much upon local custom and expectations as upon anything the church said or wanted After the banning of all pagan cults in 390 the Church was the only religious institution in town Even though it took #700 years before it achieved effective administrative power its existence obviously CORRELATED with ANY developments in European society #years before it achieved effective administrative power its existence obviously CORRELATED with ANY developments in European society claims without evidence that it CAUSED these developments but historians provide perfectly ood other explanations Henrich has an extensive section on the decline of cousin marriages from AD400 but the Romans had already forbidden it to the fourth degree of consanguinity the classical scholar Brent Shaw found no cousin marriages among 33 Roman aristocratic marriages Most marriage cohabitation arrangements were unrecorded so how can Henrich map the decline in percentages of cousin marriages in Europe so precisely that p226 each century of Western Church exposure cuts the rate of cousin marriage by nearly 60 per cent Historians would love to know how Henrich does it How do Italians always Catholic and Swedes first pagan eventually Christian then Protestant eually become WEIRD despite ethnic language and eographical barriers Henrich does not appear to know of the ethnic and linguistic diversity of Europe still obvious even today Europe is a The Carpenters geographical space within which there are diverse cultures who have often been in conflict with each other IYet Henrich talks of Europe s collective brain by the twelfth century p451 The European collective brain apparently depends on links between European urban areasraph p451 and their interaction Yet rivalries between Italian cities were intenseBut Henrich insists that the WEIRD individuals somehow created a collective brain and it. A bold epic account of how the co evolution of psychology and culture created the peculiar Western mind that has profoundly shaped the modern world Perhaps you are WEIRD raised in a society that is Western Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic If so you're rather psychologically Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic If so you're rather psychologically Unlike much of the world today and most people who have ever lived WEIRD people are highly individualistic self obsessed control oriented nonconformist and analytical They focus on themselves their attributes accomplishments and aspirations over their relationships and social roles How did WEIRD populations become so psychologically distinct What role did these psychological differences play in the industrial revolution and the lobal expansion of Europe during the last few centuries In The WEIRDest People in the World Joseph Henrich draws on cutting edge research in anthropology psychology economics and evolutionary biology to explore these uestions andHe illuminates the origins and evolution of family structures marriage And Religion And The Profound Impact These religion and the profound impact these transformations had on human psychology Mapping these shifts through ancient history and late antiuity Henrich reveals that the most fundamental institutions of kinship and marriage changed dramatically under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church It was these changes that ave rise to the WEIRD psychology that would coevolve with impersonal markets occupational specialization and free competition laying the foundation for the modern world Provocative and engaging in both its broad scope and its surprising details The WEIRDest People in the World explores how culture institutions and psychology shape one another and explains what this means for both our most personal sense of who we are as individuals and also the large scale social political and economic forces that drive human history Includes black and white illustrations.

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The WEIRDest People in the World: How the West Became Psychologically Peculiar and Particularly Prosperous

Assistant Professor of Anthropology Joseph Henrich ´ 7 free download

T on with it as they had always done throughout history and to destroy kinship roups so his whole argument collapses Fundamentally Henrich fails to understand the many constraints religious economic and social which meant that the majority of Europeans were stuck in the communities where they were born and had to live subservient lives in order to create wealth for a minorityIs it necessary to o back to medieval times to find WEIRDness especially when that leaves one with immense problems of the To Rabbittown geneticcultural transmission of psychological traits over centuries The attributes of WEIRDness for the majority would seem to have appeared only recently last seventy years Most of his charts are recent surveys and Romanmedieval ones eg p 315 on representativeovernment hopelessly misleading What form of logic is it to argue in some strange way that the estimated probability of representative Commentaries and Cases on the Law of Business Organization, 2009-2010 Statutory Supplement government in pre Christian Europe is zero and leave it at that without checking further to find very lively Roman urban politics search Pompeii politics If Protestantism was theame changer 450 years ago that Henrich alleges is WEIRDness less developed in permanently Catholic nations Italy Spain France the Habsburg empireIreland Bavaria Poland etc And what are the implications of thisOn Table 19 holisticanalytical minds there are thirty countries among them the United States but only a total sample of 3334 individuals an average of 110 people per country This is scientifically meaningless and surely should not have been used as evidenceIf as Henrich argues Australia and the US are WEIRD where do their native ethnic minorities fit into thisIf Weirdness led to European science and the Enlightenment what drove Greek and Arabic science and philosophyIf Romanised areas of Europe were already free of intensive kinship and the medieval Church could not control sex lives anyway would not the Black Death industrialisation and the many devastating European wars so much for the European collective brain be the cause of psychological changes I doubt it but they are better explanations for psychological change than anything Henrich can offer Are the children of one WEirD and one non WEIRD couples WEIRD or not Probably the strong kinship links of non WEIRDs would predominate in parental upbringingIf the US is a WEIRD society are supporters of Trump and supporters of Biden eually WEIRDPS I apologise for the length of this review from a historian s point of view the proposed narrative fails at every stage but has been accepted without any uestion and there is no evidence to support it Why do none of the hundred or so books on the medieval Church and society on my shelves mention changes in medieval society as a result of marriage laws Because most people ot on with their sex lives and cohabitation arrangements without reference to the Church See James Brundage on thisWestern societies succeed because they have a balance between conformism and individuality and enough wealth to innovate We allow a favoured few to break out and rely on the mass to et on with humdrum livesYou really need to THINK about the claims in this book Yes it is The Moth Diaries great to think WEST IS BEST but there is so much evidence for other causes of western prosperityeducationdemocracy the main attributes of WEIRD only SINCE1800 we don t need Henrich s imagined medieval versionSocial scientists and cultural psychologists love this book Historians not so even though its argument is a historical one Goes to show how isolated some academic disciplines are from each other What a pity Henrich did not read Chris Wickham s magisterial Framing the Early Middle Ages Europe and the Mediterranean 400 800 OUP2005 aroundbreaking work Wickham concludes p825 The early middle ages has always resisted synthesis single Misconduct (Birmingham Rebels, generalisations about the motors of its development have always foundered A valid warning A ton of books continue to be published but most are variations on a theme Few are as original as The Weirdest People in the World A review in the NYT whetted my appetite I read the sample and was hooked But afteretting into it I Hollywood Education got bogged down His scholarship in some areas was tedious Like tribal kinship arrangements I decided I would skim such His depth is important especially for serious critics other scholars Not for me as aeneralist He was providing depth than I wanted to dig through Henrich is not a Steps Through the Mist generalist as a thoroughist I admire his candidness in admitting some concepts were inconclusive open to study etc Hiseneral thesis was astounding crediting the Roman Catholic Church with a booster shot from Protestantism in initiating the West we live in today While I ve been a part of the RCC for these many years I never Viewed It In This Perspective it in this perspective yet Henrich notes the RCC stumbled into the #paradigm that made the West what it is today It was of an institutional effort rather #that made the West what it is today It was of an institutional effort rather a theological or biblical application Henrich identifies himself as non religious It began innocuously with banning marriage between cousins Something that had been normative for eons For years I had couples fill out marriage forms and couldn t understand the obsession with relationships and consanguinity etc Henrich reveals why Nor am I aware of any cultural analysis which factors in canonists He certainly jarred my formed brain at the same time providing revelation about deeply held concepts not knowing why they are deeply held One is the issue of The Missing Brides (Missing, guilt Catholics have been caricatured as obsessed withuilt Henrich parses why Guilt is something an individual has in response to certain actions The awareness of being an individual precedes the feeling of uilt Guilt isn t necessarily bad as often dismissed It reflects an individual s sense of responsibility for one s acts I don t intend to be exhaustive but simply provide how this work forces one to revisit numerous concepts that now make sense than Iever imbued them with It caused me to think of Jesus as perhaps the first weird person Henrich doesn t provide any exegesis of scripture nor theological discourse as focusing on the Roman Catholic Church as an institution However I began to perceive many of the concepts that are normative for western society inchoate in Jesus The issue of intense kinship is key to Henrich s analysis Jesus rejected intense kinship The very uestion of his inconclusive parentage underscores his severing traditional kinship ties In his adulthood he uestions who is my mother who are my brothers and sisters MT 1248 His response transcends blood He challenged persons to be analytic The parable of the Good Samaritan is a classic example of his probing what others think as he did constantly using parables for people to parse Going against tradition is essential for Henrich s thesis to break out of the kinship mold and hold Jesus did this constantly creating an adversarial relation to the keepers of the tradition His rejecting the law as an absolute and elevating the person for whom the law is to serve was considered blasphemous The Sabbath is made for man not man for the Sabbath I feel I could take distinctive ualities that Henrich contends made the West peculiar weird and find many of the seminal concepts in the uniueness of Jesus as an historical person When a writer stretches one s imagination the writer has succeeded There has been much discussion of how western pop culture has impacted the world But Henrich s is offering a deeper analysis of how many concepts which emerged in western society are now being tested one way or another through the world The cultural evolution of the west is becoming catholic. SA bold epic account of how the co evolution of psychology and culture created the peculiar Western mind that has profoundly shaped the modern world Perhaps you are WEIRD raised in a society that is Western Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic If so you're rather psychologically peculiar Unlike much of the world today and most people who have ever lived WEIRD people are highly individualistic self obsessed control oriented nonconformist and analytical They focus on themselves their attributes accomplishments and aspirations over their relationships and social roles How did WEIRD populations become so psychologically distinct What role did these psychological differences play in the industrial revolution and the lobal expansion of psychological differences play in the industrial revolution and the Dudo of St Quentin global expansion of during the last few centuries In The WEIRDest People in the World Joseph Henrich draws on cutting edge research in anthropology psychology economics and evolutionary biology to explore these uestions and He illuminates the origins and evolution of family structures marriage and religion and the profound impact these cultural transformations had on human psychology Mapping these shifts through ancient history and late antiuity Henrich reveals that the most fundamental institutions of kinship and marriage changed dramatically under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church It was these changes thatave rise to the WEIRD psychology that would coevolve with impersonal markets occupational specialization and free competition laying the foundation for the modern world Provocative and engaging in both its broad scope and its surprising details The WEIRDest People in the World explores how culture institutions and psychology shape one another and explains what this means for both our most personal sense of who we are as individuals and also the large scale social political and economic forces that drive human history Includes black and white illustratio. Got collective with timeeg p460 The primary thrusters that accelerated innovation during the Industrial Revolution were fuelled by the expanding size and interconnectedness of Europe s collective brain But patterns of industrialisation varied so widely and many areas of Europe never industrialised It depended on natural resources mines depended on coal deposits water mills on rushing water Why was island Britain the first to industrialise and other European nations not Did the working classes and the mine owners share a collective brain The new working class certainly LOST their individuality in the factories and mines so was there a decline in the individuality of WEIRDness then The classic book on the loss of freedom by the working class is EPThompson s The Making of the English Working Class1963Henrich suggests that WEIRD psychology becomes passed on through cultural evolution How does this actually work in societies which are so diverse How do illiterate farm labourers with children working from aged ten acuire WEIRD psychology and then pass it on to their children Drittes Reich und Zweiter Weltkrieg generation aftereneration I leave it to the psychologists and social scientists to sort this one out Is it merely a collective cultural phenomenon somehow passed on by societies whether agricultural industrial urban or otherwise over many centuries through war plague and famineOn p191 Henrich suggests that relational freedoms spurred residential mobility as individuals and nuclear families relocated to new lands and Locas growing urban communities There has been an immense amount of work analysing the social and economic reasons for the revival of an urban economy but Henrich a non historian suggests uniuely that it was due to unproved relational eg marriage freedoms It was partly surpluses in agricultural production and population which allowed urbanisation to take place not changing cohabitation arrangements I would refer him to Wim Blockmans excellent Urbanisation in the European Middle Ages Phases of Openness and Occlusion an authoritative survey easily found online by a leading medieval historianBasic training for historians includes a suspicion of monocausal solutions especially when sources are so limited as they are for medieval Europe Yet Henrich ploughs on So p 321 Summarising our progress the breakdown of kinship based institutions evidence opened the door to urbanisation and the formation of free cities and charter towns which began developingreater self Smoking Lovely governance Often dominated by merchants urbanrowth enerated rising levels of merchant integration and we can infer sic higher levels of impersonal trust fairness and cooperation This is speculative Roman Europe was filled with politically lively cities Why were Damascus Cairo Baghdad much larger cities than any in Europe Did they have a break up of kinship roups The medieval cities of northern Italy were riven with factional conflict Many came under one family rule after 1300 so making the chart on p315 which suggests a continuous rise in representative Forbidden Mate (Holland Brothers, government misleading In fact that chart is nonsense urban life in Roman cities was very lively not zero and representativeovernments first appear in Italy c1100 and developed their identity in opposition to church power rather than being caused by it Henrich s history is imaginary As Europe had already been prosperous with a sophisticated legal system under the Romans conventional historians suggesta the relatively fertile land which allowed a surplus to support cities and the population to create them b the continuing influence of the classical past especially as transmitted though the Arabs which stimulated intellectual life It provided Roman law as well as important texts on politics for emerging cities c the revival of trade in the Mediterranean again partly thanks to trade with the Arabs which stimulated urbanisation Venice Pisa Genoa and fundamental to all this for the later period d the European discovery of the Americas Where Christianity did have an impact was the sense it Often Go Awry gave of cultural superiority which led to colonialism and exploitation of other lesser societiesTo conclude Henrich P350 In the wake of the Church s demolition of intensive kinship people became increasingly individualistic independent self focused nonconformist and relationally mobile What all of them and also part of a collective braina There is little evidence that the Church actually demolished intensive kinship How do you define kinship across the varied populations of Europe let alone measure intense or less intense kinship in societies in pre modern times when there is virtually no evidence about social relationships Kinshiproups can have imprecise boundaries and it is often difficult to know who thought they were kin to whom We would love to know about forms of kinship in post Roman Europe but unless we have Under Grand Hotel, Volume 02 genealogical records ofenerations it is very difficultb The vast majority of the European population was stuck with backbreaking work on the land until 1750 and work in the emerging factories and mines was probably worse see the harrowing descriptions of coal mining in Zola s Germinal and did not have the energy or opportunity to be independent and self focused By his own definition of WEIRD Henrich creates a psychology of the individual which only a small elite could enjoy before the twentieth century and so one could argue simplistically that it was eually the result of secularisationAs a historian of European culture I really do struggle with the concept of the European collective brain across such an ethnically diverse continent and so many competing cities And how do the devastating European wars and centuries old rivalries between so called WEIRD communities relate to this brain As to individualism with the majority working on the land or later in factories and coal mines nonconformism was out subservience was in That and trade some from slave plantations as well as destruction of other economies such as India partly explains the R in WEIRD The rise of the individual always involved the emergence of an elite a minority of individuals depended on the profits of mass of the population for their success and wealth It is extraordinary that the #author did not read some basic introductions to post Roman Europe such as those by Christopher Wickham or #did not read some basic introductions to post Roman Europe such as those by Christopher Wickham or Smith or consulted colleagues in the medieval history department at Harvard You can produce as many charts you like but explanations must fit with the historical evidence Henrich makes the very basic error of assuming that western history is progressive the collapse of the advanced Roman civilisation in Europe shows that this is not true and the industrialised working classes in disease ridden slums hardly knew progress until much laterThere is virtually nothing on the economic background of this Utopian Europe Perhaps people were so busy searching for mates dissolving their intensive kinship DIRTY - 47 verruchte TABU Erotik Geschichten groups moving house to the cities and working on building up their WEIRD individualistic but collective brains not to have time to make a living The crops justrew and self harvested and cloth wove itself Life for the vast majority of European was rooted in poverty famine and plague yet Henrich seems to assume that populations AS A WHOLE became WEIRDI bought this book in Im Squirrely! (The Nut Family, good faith after the many adulatory reviews as it overlaps with much of my own work as a historian There has been a vast amount of sophisticated work by historians on the period between AD 400 and AD 1800 There is no evidence that the Church had the power to define sexual relationships medieval peoples justo. A bold epic account of how the co evolution of psychology and culture created the peculiar Western mind that has profoundly shaped the modern world Perhaps you are WEIRD raised in a society that is Western Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic If so you're rather psychologically peculiar Unlike much of the world today and most people who have ever lived WEIRD people are highly individualistic self obsessed control oriented nonconformist and analytical They focus on themselves their attributes accomplishments and aspirations over their relationships and social roles How did WEIRD populations become so psychologically distinct What role did these psychological differences play in the industrial revolution and the lobal expansion of Europe during the last few centuries In The WEIRDest People in the World Joseph Henrich draws on cutting edge research in anthropology psychology economics and evolutionary biology to explore these uestions and He illuminates the origins and evolution of structures marriage and religion and the profound impact these cultural transformations had on human psychology Mapping THESE SHIFTS THROUGH ANCIENT HISTORY AND LATE ANTIUITY HENRICH shifts through ancient history and late antiuity Henrich that the most fundamental institutions of kinship and marriage changed dramatically under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church It was these changes that ave rise to the WEIRD psychology that would coevolve with impersonal markets occupational specialization and free competition laying the foundation for the modern world Provocative and engaging in both its broad scope and its surprising details The WEIRDest People in the World explores how culture institutions and psychology shape one another and explains what this means for both our most personal sense of who we are as individuals and also the large scale social political and economic forces that drive human history Includes black and white illustration. .